IS IT CORRECT TO TRANSLATE ‘PARADOSIS’ AS ‘TEACHINGS’ INSTEAD OF ‘TRADITIONS’? There are three occasions in the NT when the Greek word ‘παραδόσεις’, which literally means ‘Traditions’, is sometimes translated as ‘Teachings’. The passages are 1Corinthians 11:2, 2Thessalonians 2:15, and 2Thessalonians 3:6. THE LITERAL VERSION In the original Greek, the passages are these: 1 CORINTHIANS 11:2 Ἐ παιν ῶ δ ὲ ὑ μ ᾶ ς, ὅ τι πάντα μου μέμνησθε κα ὶ καθ ὼ ς παρέδωκα ὑ μ ῖ ν τ ὰ ς παραδόσεις κατέχετε. “Now I commend you, because you remember me in everything and maintain the traditions even as I delivered them to you.” 2 THESSALONIANS 2:15 Ἄ ρα ο ὖ ν, ἀ δελφοί, στήκετε, κα ὶ κρατε ῖ τε τ ὰ ς παραδόσεις ἃ ς ἐ διδάχθητε, ε ἴ τε δι ὰ λόγου, ε ἴ τε δι' ἐ πιστολ ῆ ς ἡ μ ῶ ν. “So then, brothers, stand firm, and hold fast to the traditions that you were taught, whether by word, or by letter from us” 2 THESSALONIANS 3:6 Παραγγέλλομεν δ ὲ ὑ μ ῖ ν, ἀ δελφοί, ἐ ν ὀ νόμ


  JESUS CALLS THE FIRST DISCIPLES 35The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples, 36and he looked at Jesus as he walked by and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God!” 37The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. 38Jesus turned and saw them following and said to them, “What are you seeking?” And they said to him, “Rabbi” (which means Teacher), “where are you staying?” 39He said to them, “Come and you will see.” So, they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day, for it was about the tenth hour. 40One of the two who heard John speak and followed Jesus was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. 41He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which means Christ). 42He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John. You shall be called Cephas” (which means Peter). JOHN 1:35-42 COMMENTARY We know from the synoptics, that Lord Jesus was taken by the Holy S


  THE PLACE OF THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS IN CHRISTIANITY ‘Apostolic Fathers’ are those Christian writers taken from a vast number of contemporary writings, who are assumed to have met the apostles themselves or an immediate disciple of them, and who have influenced Christian Theology from the 1 st and 2 nd century. Most of their writings are from the East and possess the same basic theological level, compared with later theological development. Even though the term ‘apostolic father’ dates back from the Middle Ages, these writings were highly regarded in Christendom since the first century, and some are included in the NT canon of the African Church to this day (Clement I, Didascalia, Synods, and others). However, they were not accepted into most biblical canons, because they never claimed to have direct apostolic recognition, or were written after the apostolic era. Even in cases like Polycarp or Ignatius who are assumed to have known St John Apostle, their writings date posteri


  AND HOW ARE THEY TO PREACH UNLESS THEY ARE SENT? This verse from Roman 10:15 has been manipulated by some to say that nobody can preach or perform the sacraments Lord Jesus commanded like Baptism, Lord’s Supper and Anointing, to mention some, unless they are ‘sent’, meaning Ordained to do so by higher authorities in apostolic succession. BACKGROUND OF THE VERSE This verse is the last one of other verses that are mentioned by apostle Paul speaking about the necessity of preaching the Gospel to the Jews as a necessity for salvation. The whole set reads: “How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without someone preaching? And how are they to preach unless they are sent? As it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the good news!” Romans 10:14-15 Prior to this declaration, St Paul was speaking how Jesus fulfills the whole Mosaic Law r


  DOES THE LETTER OF CLEMENT I PROVE ROMAN SUPREMACY? The epistle known as Clement to the Corinthians, which is attributed to Clement bishop of Rome, who according to Irenaeus and Tertullian, was in office from the year 88 to 99, it is considered to be a strong proof of the universal primacy of the bishop of Rome by Catholic ecclesiastical historians. WHO WAS CLEMENT? No exact information can be collected directly from history. All we know from Clement is from rumors and traditions, but no concrete proof of his existence can be found. He is mention for the first time by Tertullian (160CE), who through ‘tradition’ said that he was the immediate successor of Peter in the leadership of Rome (1). However, Irenaeus of Lyons (130-185CE) mentions him quickly as being the third successor ‘from the apostles’ as bishop of Rome (2). Eusebius of Caesarea who lived between 265 to 339, and through whose we have most of the information we have today, mentions a certain Jew convert called


  WHAT IS ORDINATION The word ‘ordination’ is not in the Scripture, however, the term is used to identify the ‘setting apart’ ritual described in the NT to consecrate Ministers of the Gospel. The formal separation of people and things to the exclusive use of God, has been a practice that comes from the beginning of humanity, according to the Bible. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT Cain and Abel consecrated of their products to God before offering them (Genesis 4:2-3). Even though no consecration ritual is described here, the fact of the setting ‘apart’ from the ‘First born and fat’, was a selective separation done in faith and devotion. Something more sophisticated happened centuries later when the Tabernacle was consecrated and set apart by Moses (Exodus 40:9). However, also people were ‘set apart’ for an exclusive function during the times of the Old Testament. Kings were anointed (1Samuel 10:1), and also Priests (Exodus 29:1-9). Even though this consecration was done through the a


  CHALDEAN GENESIS Among biblical scholars, this term is used to describe the Babylonian narrative of creation, which resembles great similitude to the Jewish narrative of the creation of the world, humanity, universal flood, and other details. (1)   The Babylonian narrative itself is estimated to be around 1000 years old, and it is an adaptation of an older Sumerian mythological narrative that surpass the millennium. The creation narrative is known as ‘Enuma Elis’, and is contained in several clay tablets, written in ancient cuneiform writing, and considered by modern scholars to be the base texts which the Jewish priests used to design the modern version of Genesis’s creation story. THE BABYLONIAN NARRATIVE AND JEWISH GENESIS Even though many have heard about the legend of Gilgamesh, and its attributed influence over the creation biblical account, the truth is that the average person, believer or not, would be surprised to compare the narratives of the Babylonian and biblic